Department of technology, innovation und etrepreneurship

Value Co-Creation: Eine Analyse von Treibern und Gestaltungsansätzen für B2B- vs. B2C-Kunden

Felix Konstantin Steinhardt, Freie Universität Berlin (Masterarbeit)
Junior Management Science 5(1), 2020, 81-117

Value Co-Creation (CC) wird eine hohe Bedeutung zugesprochen, da sie ermöglicht, Kunden aktiv in die Wertschöpfung von Unternehmen einzubeziehen und so neue Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu kreieren, die optimal auf Bedürfnisse abgestimmt sind. In dieser Arbeit werden Beweggründe bzw. Treiber für die CC-Teilnahme aus Kundensicht identifiziert. Dies geschieht anhand exemplarischer Szenarien mit quantitativen Auswertungen. Hierbei wird erstmalig auf Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der Bedeutung der Treiber von CC bei business-to-business-Kunden (Geschäftskunden) vs. business-to-consumer-Kunden (Privatkunden) im direkten Vergleich eingegangen.Was bewegt die Kunden dazu, sich an anbieterinitiierten CC-Aktivitäten zu beteiligen?Wie unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung dieser Treiber für beide Kundentypen B2B vs. B2C im Detail? Bei B2B-Kunden werden hierfür zwei Betrachtungsebenen unterschieden: die organisationale, strategische Ebene des gesamten Unternehmens („firm-level“) und die individuelle Perspektive der Mitarbeiter eines Unternehmens, welches Geschäftskunde ist („individuallevel“). Zusäzlich werden praktische Gestaltungsansätze für CC diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse tragen zum tieferen CC-Verständnis bei und geben dabei Anhaltspunkte für die Initiierung von CC-Projekten.

Keywords: Co-Creation; Customer Engagement; B2B-Treiber; B2C-Treiber; Kundenmanagement.

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Die Legitimation einer Innovation durch Cultural Entrepreneurship – Explorative Fallstudie eines symbiotischen Zusammenspiels zwischen einem Start-up und dessen Schlüsselkunden

Leona Schink, Leuphana Universität Lüneburg (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 4(3), 2019, 433-459

Die „Cultural Entrepreneurship“ Literatur untersucht wie Start-ups die „Liability of newness“ durch kulturelle Überzeugungsleistungen überwinden, wobei meist Entrepreneure in der aktiven und die Bezugsgruppen (z.B. InvestorInnen) in der passiven Empfängerrolle gesehen werden. Die Fallstudie eines vom Start-up Tonio und dessen B-to-B Schlüsselkunden Turner Broadcasting System (TBS) durchgeführten und auf Tonios innovativer Technologie basierenden Pilotprojektes untersucht, wie Tonio sich bei TBS legitimiert und vor allem, wie interne Dynamiken innerhalb des Schlüsselkunden den Legitimationsprozess beeinflussen. Eine qualitative Inhaltsanalyse von Leitfadeninterviews, unternehmensinternen Dokumenten sowie frei zugänglichen Medienartikeln legt offen, dass sowohl Tonio, als auch interne Allianzpartner innerhalb von TBS in einer symbiotischen Zusammenarbeit aktiv für die Legitimation der innovativen Technologie gezielte kulturelle Überzeugungsarbeit leisten. So nutzt TBS bei der an interne Stakeholder gerichteten Überzeugungsarbeit beispielsweise Identitätsmechanismen, wie symbolische Handlungen, Narrative und Analogien, die in der vorherigen Phase ebenso von Tonio genutzt wurden, um TBS als Kunden zu gewinnen. Anschließend übernimmt Tonio Legitimationsarbeit von TBS zur Akquise neuer Kunden. Mit diesen Ergebnissen trägt diese Studie zum Verständnis von Innovationsprojekten als über Organisationsgrenzen hinweg fungierende Symbiosen bei.

Keywords: cultural entrepreneurship; legitimacy; new ventures.

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The Influence of Cryptocurrencies on Enterprise Risk Management – an Empirical Evidence by the Example of Bitcoin

Maximilian Bölstler, Universität St. Gallen (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 4(2), 2019, 195-227

This thesis analyzes the influence of cryptocurrencies in the context of risk management by considering the emerging risk
factors of Bitcoin as a payment method. By means of an empirical analysis through an online survey, the current operational
dealing of incoming Bitcoin funds, the risk awareness of the potential threats, and the corresponding control activities
implemented by companies accepting Bitcoin payments have been examined. The results reveal that the risks of this new
technology-based payment method have not been extensively evaluated and that there exists a partially significant lack of
know-how. Therefore, the risks are either not at all or improperly addressed by a majority of the organizations. However,
the exchange rate risk and the cyber risk, which is a strongly linked to the administration of cryptocurrencies, represent the
most significant related risk factors associated with cryptocurrencies in recent times. To ensure an appropriate operational
dealing with cryptocurrencies, the author presents a risk control matrix based on the results of the analysis and discusses control
activities to mitigate these emerging threats. Finally, a holistic Cryptocurrency IC Framework (following the COSO 2013
IC Framework) is presented, with the objective of effectively and efficiently developing and maintaining systems of internal
control with regard to cryptocurrencies.

Keywords: Blockchain; digital assets; Bitcoin; cryptocurrency; IC framework; enterprise risk management.

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Word Embedding, Neural Networks and Text Classification: what is the State-of-the-Art?

Estevan Vilar, ESCP Europe (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 4(1), 2019, 35-62

In this bachelor thesis, I first introduce the machine learning methodology of text classification with the goal to describe the functioning of neural networks. Then, I identify and discuss the current development of Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks from a text classification perspective and compare both models. Furthermore, I introduce different techniques used to translate textual information in a language comprehensible by the computer, which ultimately serve as inputs for the models previously discussed. From there, I propose a method for the models to cope with words absent from a training corpus. This first part has also the goal to facilitate the access to the machine learning world to a broader audience than computer science students and experts. To test the proposal, I implement and compare two state-of-the-art models and eight different word representations using pre-trained vectors on a dataset given by LogMeIn and on a common benchmark.

I find that, with my configuration, Convolutional Neural Networks are easier to train and are also yielding better results. Nevertheless, I highlight that models that combine both architectures can potentially have a better performance, but need more work on identifying appropriate hyperparameters for training. Finally, I find that the efficacy of word embedding methods depends not only on the dataset but also on the model used to tackle the subsequent task. In my context, they can boost performance by up to 10.2% compared to a random initialization. However, further investigations are necessary to evaluate the value of my proposal with a corpus that contains a greater ratio of unknown relevant words.

Keywords: neural networks; machine learning; word embedding; text classification; business analytics.

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The Impact of the Gig-Economy on U.S. Labor Markets: Understanding the Role of Non-Employer Firms using Econometric Models and the Example of Uber

Fabien Rozzi, Technische Universität München (Masterarbeit)
Junior Management Science 3(2), 2018, 33-56

In this work, I provide quantitative responses to the questions of how the size and the growth of the gig-economy can be measured and how labor markets respond to the exposure to online platforms using data on non-employer firms from the U.S. Census Bureau and on the staggered market entry of Uber in different U.S. metropolitan areas. I find that non-employer firms experienced a growth by 60% between 1999 and 2014 adding almost 9 million non-employer firms to the U.S. economy. I show that non-employer firms are tightly linked to the rise of independent work and are highly effected by the emergence of online platforms. Uber triggers an increase of 20 percentage points in non-employer firms relative to employment in the transportation sector 4 years after entering local labor markets. Furthermore, Uber’s market entry is associated with a 0.05 – 0.07 increase in non-employer share in the transportation sector. I demonstrate that the growth of non-employer firms between 2005 and 2014 is correlated with the growth in alternative work arrangements measured at the industry and state level by Katz and Krueger. I find that the rise of non-employer firms is not mechanically driven by differential industry or regional growth and that the number of gig-economy workers are at highest where unemployment is at highest. My results highlight the impact of the gig-economy on labor markets and provide evidence that the use of non-employer firms is relevant for measuring the gig-economy.

Keywords: Gig-Economy, Online Platform Economy, Labor Market, Non-Employer Firms, Uber

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Similar Chords, Different Tune? The Effects of Different Solution Formulations on the Identification of Collaborative Opportunities in Selective Revealing: A web-based Experiment

David Burgschwaiger, Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 3(2), 2018, 80-120

As selective revealing is being recognized as a new means to find collaboration partners, little attention has been paid on how selectively revealed solutions are best formulated in order to be positively perceived. Prior research has highlighted that technological gatekeepers, i.e. individuals with who handle the R&D communication network and hence potential recipients of revealed knowledge, rely on cognitive and perceptual abilities during the recognition and evaluation of novel technologies. To enrich existing knowledge about opportunity recognition in selective revealing, this study took a cognitive perspective and intended to explore the effects of different formulated revealed solutions on the identification of collaborative opportunities. By priorly manipulating the superficial and structural commonalities of two revealed solutions conducted in collaboration with industry experts, I designed a 2*2 within-subject experiment to validate whether such an induction of analogies increases the percipience of a selectively revealed opportunity. The data, which was attained during an online-experiment with university students from different fields of studies also included individual factors such as prior knowledge about markets and technologies, creative ability (proxied by divergent thinking test and creative self-efficacy) and other demographic characteristics. The gathered data was analyzed through a linear-mixed effect model to capture the repeated design of the experiment. The computation illustrated that relational commonalities between a market and a revealed solution considerably improved the perception about a revealed solution and the willingness to engage a collaboration. In addition, the results demonstrated that superficial similarities facilitate the retrieval of analogies from structural commonalities. For the individual factors, the provided evidence could not support the initial hypotheses that individual creativity and prior knowledge positively moderate the effects of superficial and structural similarities. Contrarily, the results revealed negative moderating effects of creativity and the field of study. Despite further research is necessary, this study delivered implications for both ends of the information flow in selective revealing by conjointly examining the effects of selectively revealed opportunities and personal traits, and enriched this field of study through comprehending the drivers of early action in open innovation and strategic renewal.

Keywords: Selective Revealing, Opportunity Recognition, Open Innovation, Analogical Reasoning, Gatekeepers

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Market reactions to the servitization of product offerings – An event study on the software as a service model

Jaakko Nurkka, Technische Universität München (Masterarbeit)
Junior Management Science 3(2), 2018, 121-150

Servitization is transforming traditional manufacturing and product-oriented firms across industries in many ways. One of these transformations concerns the business models of firms that transform from selling products to provisioning products as a service with product-service systems (PSS). I analyze this form of servitization in the software industry, where the software as a service business model is becoming the standard for most start-ups as well as some big enterprises like Adobe and Autodesk. Event study methodology is applied to 359 software vendors’ announcements of new software as a service offerings between 2001 and 2015, analyzing how installed base, parallel business models and partnerships with external service providers influence the reaction in the stock price of the software vendors. I find that “as-a- service” business models are not perceived as a substitute but rather as a complement for perpetual product sales and that collaboration with specialized service providers for the delivery of the new offering is rewarded by the stock market. I explain the findings with organizational inertia within the software vendors’ organization as well as that of their customers. The findings are used to discuss how companies can manage the inertia by developing new product lines for the PSS model, offering perpetual product sales in parallel and cooperating with third party service providers for the service delivery.

Keywords: SaaS, Software-as-a-Service, Servitization, Business model transformation, Stock markets

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Trust Transfer in the Sharing Economy – A Survey-Based Approach

Jingyi Zhang, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 3(2), 2018, 1-32

The sharing economy is experiencing explosive growth around the globe in which trust plays a crucial role and builds the foundation of the services. With the rise of the sharing economy and the increasing numbers of cross-contextual users, this research aims at the lack of trust transference possibilities across the Peer-to-Peer applications and has the goal to find out whether and how trust can be transferred between the platforms, so that new users do not have to create their reputation from scratch every time they join a new platform. First, this research provides an in-depth literature review of trust transfer theories. Secondly, a conceptual research model for the role of the imported trust in the context of the sharing economy is outlined and analysed by proposing and evaluating a questionnaire using structural equation modeling. Throughout the study, a three-dimensional scale of trust, i.e. ability, benevolence and integrity, is validated in the context of the sharing economy. The experimental study shows that both the overall and subdimensional trust in the provider is directly affected by the overall trust in the platform, the perceived reputation as well as the perceived social presence. The study also provides empirical evidence for the existence of trust transferability. The findings show that in addition to the immanent ratings, imported ratings also significantly affect the perceived reputation of the provider positively. Finally, this paper discusses further details of the trust transfer processes and broadens implications for future research.

Keywords: Sharing Economy, Trust, Trust Transfer, Reputation, Peer-to-peer

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Blockchain technology and IP – investigating benefits and acceptance in governments and legislations

Jean-Maxime Rivière, Technische Universität München (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 3(1), 2018, 1-15

The blockchain, as underlying technology of Bitcoins, has implications that reach far beyond the original intent as virtual currency. In this paper, we investigate how blockchain technology can be encompassed in the innovation process and bring huge benefits to the patent system as well as copyrights, trade secrecy, defensive publications, and open innovation. We further explore the institutional support for the technology necessary for a successful implementation, in form of legislations and governmental projects. We find out that numerous authorities have started voting favorable legislations and recognizing the technology as a valid public ledger. Ultimately, we confirm our findings by interviewing three actors involved in the innovation process.

Keywords: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Intellectual property, Legislation, Innovation

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Unternehmensreputation von Onlineunternehmen

Regina Ulrike Endres, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Masterarbeit)
Junior Management Science 3(1), 2018, 38-87

Die Reputation gilt als einer der wichtigsten immateriellen Vermögenswerte eines Unternehmens. Zahlreiche Studien konnten die positiven Auswirkungen einer guten Reputation für die Stakeholder eines Unternehmens belegen. Jüngste Studien identifizieren die Reputation einer Onlinefirma als wichtigen Einflussfaktor auf das Vertrauen gegenüber einem Onlineunternehmen, auf die Reduzierung von Datenschutzbedenken sowie des wahrgenommenen Risikos. Diese Faktoren fördern die Bereitschaft zu kaufen und private Daten preiszugeben – zwei zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren von Unternehmen im Onlinebereich. Diese Arbeit widmet sich der Frage, welche Aspekte die Reputation von Onlinefirmen formen und ob sich diese vom Offlinebereich unterscheiden. In Ermangelung eines adäquaten Modells für Reputation im Onlinebereich wurde sich des bewährten Corporate Reputation Modells nach Schwaiger (2004) bedient, das traditionell für den Offlinebereich entwickelt wurde. Auf Basis von qualitativen Interviews und durch eine umfangreiche Literaturanalyse wurde dieses Modell um online-spezifische Indikatoren ergänzt. Das neu entstandene Modell wurde in einer quantitativen Onlineumfrage sowohl anhand Online- als auch Offlinefirmen getestet. Eine explorative Faktorenanalyse gibt Aufschluss über die zugrunde liegende Faktorenstruktur. Die PLS-SEM Analyse zeigt, dass im Onlinebereich vor allem eine große Kundenbasis und Empfehlungen von Freunden und Bekannten auf die Bildung der Reputation positiv Einfluss nehmen. Im Offlinebereich konnten hingegen das Erscheinungsbild der Firma und ein gutes Management als Haupteinflussfaktoren identifiziert werden.

Keywords: Company Reputation, Corporate Reputation, PLS-SEM Model, Onlinefirmen, E-Commerce

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The State of the Art in Cryptocurrencies

Yasmin Le, Universität Mannheim (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 2(3), 2017, 1-10

Bitcoin has emerged as a popular digital currency and arouses the interest not only of programmers, but also of investors and academics. What interests them most is its underlying technology, the blockchain. This thesis aims at giving an overview of the current state of cryptocurrencies and compares their different designs and approaches to Bitcoin. The blockchain technology will be explained, as well as how it could impact many aspects in life by showcasing different applications of Ethereum blockchain-based smart contracts.
Based on the evaluation of the different cryptocurrencies and preceding conclusions, specific cryptocurrencies will be applied to the Tasklet system before proposing the implementation of the blockchain technology in such a system, in order to establish a reward system.

The paper reviews a heterogeneous, scattered body of knowledge including academic literature, but also non-scientific sources due to the constantly evolving technology. On this basis, the advantages of Bitcoin, but also its weaknesses, as well as the vast potential of blockchain are discussed. Results indicate that although Bitcoin’s framework may be limited, it will still play an important role in the future due to its dominance in the cryptocurrency market. The short display of blockchain-fueled applications and its effects has shown its potential to transform the internet, leading to the rise of the Web 3.0.

Keywords: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Cryptocurrency, Distributed Ledger Technology, Smart Contract

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Analyzing Dynamic Capabilities in the Context of Cloud Platform Ecosystems – A Case Study Approach

Kevin Rudolph, Technische Universität Berlin (Masterarbeit)
Junior Management Science 2(3), 2017, 124-172

Dynamic capabilities (DCs) refer to a firm’s abilities to continuously adapt its resource base in order to respond to changes in its external environment. The capability to change dynamically is crucial in business ecosystems that are composed of a variety of actors.

Amazon Web Services (AWS), the leader in the cloud platform industry, is a promising cloud platform provider (CPP) to show a high degree of dynamic capability fulfillment within its highly fluctuating ecosystem. To date, the full scope of dynamic capabilities in cloud platform ecosystems (CPEs) has not been fully understood. Zurück work has failed to deliver a combined perspective of explicit dynamic capabilities in cloud platform ecosystems applied on an in-depth practical case.

With our mixed-method case study on the AWS ecosystem we deliver a thorough understanding of its sensing, seizing and transforming capabilities. We generate a set of strategy management frameworks that support our expectations, lead to unexpected insights and answer the questions of what, how, why and with whom AWS uses DCs. In detail, we provide an understanding about DC chronological change, DC network patterns and DC logical explanations. Our research is based on a self-compiled case study database containing 16k+ secondary data pages from interviews, blogs, announcements, case studies, job vacancies, etc. that we analyze qualitatively and quantitatively. We find out that AWS develops and holds a large set of interacting dynamic capabilities incorporating a variety of ecosystem actors in order to sustain tremendous customer value and satisfaction.

The thesis infers significant theoretical and practical implications for all CPE actors, like partners, customers, investors and researchers in the field of IT strategy management. Managers of all CPE actors are encouraged to critically evaluate their own maturity level and complement a CPP’s DC explications in order to boost business by implementing sensing, seizing, transforming and innovating capabilities.

Keywords: Dynamic Capabilities, Cloud Platform Ecosystems, Innovation Capabilities, Mixed-Methods Case Study, Amazon Web Services

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Explaining the Success of user-centered Design – An Empirical Study across German B2C Firms

Nadine Chochoiek, Technische Universität München (Masterarbeit)
Junior Management Science 2(1), 2017, 81-116

This study focuses on the widely spread concept of User-Centered Design (UCD) and tries to answer the question why it is so popular. On the one hand, it is of interest to reveal the nature of UCD, especially in terms of the methods used, the types of users involved and the stages the involvement takes place. On the other hand, this paper aims to find out about the success of UCD projects as well as the organizational context that is beneficial for UCD. To do so, several streams of scientific literature in the field of UCD as well as organization theory are reviewed and the results of an empirical study conducted among UCD experts in Germany are analyzed. The theoretically derived characteristics could mainly be confirmed by the insights of the study. Moreover, several hypotheses concerning the influence of the organizational context using established constructs (IT competence, UCD competence, customer orientation, innovativeness, exploration and exploitation as well as the top management team) towards the project success in an UCD setup are proposed and tested by the means of a multiple factor analysis. By analyzing open comments concerning the facilitators and obstacles of UCD activities deeper insight into the daily business of UCD experts can be gained. A comparison between two subsamples split according to their project success score yield interesting results concerning different motives, types of integrated users and the locus of the user integration. This study has been created in collaboration with the user research and user experience (UX) consulting agency ‘Facit Digital’ who are based in Munich, Germany.

Keywords: User-Centered Design, User Integration, Exploration, Exploitation, Empirical Investigation

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Necessity is the Mother of Invention: Rise of Creativity due to Constraints

Meruyert Sagindykova, Technische Universität München (Bachelorarbeit)
Junior Management Science 1(2), 2016, 1-19

Due to its unique nature, creativity it is an inseparable part of an innovative outcome. While creativity and innovation are significant indicators of organizational present and future success, it is reasonable to introduce an organizational approach to promote both phenomena. Since work environment is rarely abundant, a very special way of enhancing creativity is discussed and analyzed, known as “less is more”. This novel view refers to the ability of demonstrating creative thinking under a restriction of the favorable conditions. The prior interest of this Bachelor’s thesis is to reflect the possible positive impact of scarcity of time, budget, and monitoring on the level of creativity. Constraint-based creativity is indeed a real-life phenomenon, though limitations alone may rarely provide an enhancement of creative thinking and thus require supplementary effects.

Keywords: Constraints, Creativity, Innovation, Scarcity, Invention

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Practical Implications of the Ambidexterity Concepts

Nina Gusenleitner, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz (Diplomarbeit)
Junior Management Science 1(1), 2016, 138-187

Scientific publications treating the topic of ambidexterity have experienced a great increase in number since the last twenty years. However, the implications for managers to achieve ambidexterity in practice remain a largely neglected field of research. This thesis aims at bridging the rigor-relevance gap regarding the concept of ambidexterity by systematically reviewing findings from academic and practitioner literature in order to provide practical implications for managers to reconcile exploration and exploitation and to, thus, achieve ambidexterity in practice.

Keywords: Ambidexterity, Practical implications, Exploitation, Rigor-relevance gap

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